自然资源学报 ›› 2004, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (6): 818-825.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.06.018

• 研究方法与技术 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国陆地生态信息空间化技术研究(Ⅲ)——温度、降水等气候要素

刘新安1,2, 于贵瑞1, 范辽生3, 李正泉1, 何洪林1, 郭学兵1, 任传友1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 北京100101;
    2. 杭州市气象局沈阳农业大学应用气象系,浙江杭州310008;
    3. 沈阳农业大学应用气象系,辽宁沈阳110161
  • 收稿日期:2004-03-15 修回日期:2004-06-04 出版日期:2004-12-25 发布日期:2004-12-25
  • 作者简介:刘新安(1942~)男,辽宁大连人,教授、项目聘用研究员,主要从事农业气象与应用气候研究。
  • 基金资助:

    国家杰出青年基金(项目批准号:30225012);中国科学院“百人计划”项目“生态系统管理的基础生态学过程”资助

Study on spatialization technology of terrestrial eco-information in China(III): Temperature and precipitation

LIU Xinan1,2, YU Guirui1, FAN Liaosheng3, LI Zhengquan1, HE Honglin1, GUO Xuebing1, REN Chuanyou1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Department of Applied Meteorology,Shenyang Agricultural University,Shenyang 110161, China;
    3. Hangzhou Meteorological Administration,Hangzhou 310008, China
  • Received:2004-03-15 Revised:2004-06-04 Online:2004-12-25 Published:2004-12-25

摘要: 利用国家气象局722个气象台站1971~2000年的气象资料,采用三维二次趋势面分析与空间插值相结合等方法,在ArcGIS平台上对气温、降水、空气湿度等气候要素进行空间化,生成国家尺度的1km×1km栅格各种要素气候图180多幅。经检验,平均绝对误差,平均气温和平均最高、最低气温为0.5℃左右,极端最高气温为1℃左右,极端最低气温为1.5℃左右,平均风速为0.4m·min-1;而平均相对误差,≥0℃、5℃、10℃、15℃的积温和平均相对湿度多在5%以下,降水量和饱和差在10%左右;其空间化的精度基本上达到了实用要求。为生态学、地学、资源与环境等学科的发展提供了重要的基础数据与研究平台。研究表明,空间化误差的时空分布与测点密度、气候要素本身特性等因素有关。一般规律是:西部地区大于东部地区,冬季大于夏季,离散的气候要素大于连续的气候要素,极端值大于平均值。

关键词: 气候要素, 空间化, GIS, 栅格图

Abstract: Applying three dimension second order trend surface analysis and spatial interpolation method,with the meteorological data in 1971~2000 of 722 stations in China,climatic factors such as temperature,precipitation, and air humidity have been spatialized on the ArcGIS platform, and produced 180 climatological thematic maps with a resolution of 1km2.The findings indicate that mean absolute errors of climatic factors are as follows:0.5℃ for mean temperature,mean maximum and minimum temperature;1℃ for extreme maximum temperature;1.5℃ for extreme minimum temperature;and 0.4 m·min-1 for mean wind speed.The mean relative error of some factors: accumulated temperature of ≥0℃,5℃,10℃,15℃, mean relative humidity is below 5%, and precipitation and water vapor deficit is about 10%.In conclusion,the simulated results of models are basically up to the level of application requirements.It provides basic data and a research platform for the disciplines of ecology,geography,and resources & environmental science.Analyses show that the spatial temporal pattern of spatializaiton error of climatic data varies with the density of meteorological observation stations and the characteristic of meteorological factor,etc.,in a general trend of western region > eastern region,winter > summer,discrete climatic factor > continuous ones,the extreme value > the mean value.

Key words: climatic factor, spatialization, GIS, grid map