自然资源学报 ›› 2004, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (3): 344-350.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2004.03.011

• 资源生态 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄土高原植被重建对小流域水循环的影响

王红闪1, 黄明斌1, 张橹2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院水土保持研究所土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室,陕西 杨凌 712100;
    2. CSIRO Land and Water,GPO Box 1666,Canberra,ACT 2601,Australia
  • 收稿日期:2003-11-15 修回日期:2003-12-08 出版日期:2004-06-25 发布日期:2004-06-25
  • 作者简介:王红闪(1978~),男,湖北襄樊人,硕士生.主要从事土壤水分、水环境研究。E-mail:whamr@sohu.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(No.50079023);中国科学院水土保持研究所前沿领域研究课题资助

Impacts of re-vegetation on water cycle in a small watershed of the Loess Plateau

WANG Hong-shan1, HUANG Ming-bin1, ZHANG Lu2   

  1. 1. State Key Lab. of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on Loess Plateau,Institute of Soil and Water Conservation,Chinese Academy of Science and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling,Shaanxi 712100,China;
    2. CSIRO Land and Water, GPO Box 1666, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
  • Received:2003-11-15 Revised:2003-12-08 Online:2004-06-25 Published:2004-06-25

摘要: 在黄土高原,植被重建是减少水土流失改善区域生态环境的有效措施,因而植被重建对水分循环的影响成为黄土高原地区生态环境问题研究的核心。论文利用流域对比分析法,以位于甘肃省西峰市南小河沟流域的一条森林小流域和一条荒坡草地小流域为对象,通过对1956~2000年水文要素的监测和分析,得出:44年内森林植被累积减少地表径流37%;前15-20年内植被减流作用随树龄的增长而增加,后24~30年植被的减流作用几乎保持不变;月径流量的减少主要集中在6-9月份;森林小流域相对于对比小流域,44年内土壤含水量累积减少约222mm,平均每年减少5mm;而蒸散量相对荒坡草地流域累积增加了620mm,平均每年多蒸散14mm。

关键词: 植被重建, 对比流域, 地表径流, 黄土高原

Abstract: Soil erosion results in soil degradation, pollutes water resource, blocks riverways and ditches, and imperils eco-environmental construction in Northwest China, especially in the gully region of the Loess Plateau.Re-vegetation is an effective method to reduce soil and water loss and improve eco-environment in the Loess Plateau.Therefore,the impacts of re-vegetation on water cycle have been one of the key issues in eco-environmental study in the loess region.Using a paired watershed approach,the impacts of re -vegetation on water cycle was studied in a watershed on the Loess Plateau during the period of 1956 to 2000.Deciduous trees,including locust (locusta L.),apricot (praecox L.)and elm (ulmus L.),were planted on a watershed with treated area exceeding 80% ,while a natural grassland watershed remained unchanged.The cumulative runoff yield in the treated watershed was reduced by 37% as a result of afforestation in 44 years.During the first 15-20 years,annual runoff reduction increased with the increase of the age of the trees planted and it didn't change much during the next 24-30 years. Reduction in monthly runoff occurred mainly from June to September.Compared with the natural grassland watershed,cumulative reduction of volumetric water content was about 222mm as a result of afforestation at a rate of 5mm per year.The cumulative evapotranspiration in treated watershed comparatively increased by 620mm at a rate of 14mm per year,which will cause soil desiccation.

Key words: re-vegetation, paired watersheds, runoff, the Loess Plateau