自然资源学报 ›› 2002, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (1): 1-8.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.01.001

• 论文 •    下一篇

中国西北地区生态需水研究(1)——干旱半干旱地区生态需水理论分析

王芳, 梁瑞驹, 杨小柳, 陈敏建   

  1. 中国水利水电科学研究院水资源研究所,北京100044
  • 收稿日期:2001-06-04 修回日期:2001-09-26 出版日期:2002-02-25 发布日期:2002-02-25
  • 作者简介:王芳(1966~),女,内蒙古人,博士,主要从事水资源与生态结合领域的研究。
  • 基金资助:

    国家“九五”科技攻关项目(96-912-01-04)。

A study of ecological water requirements in northwest ChinaⅠ:theoretical analysis

WANG Fang, LIANG Rui-ju, YANG Xiao-liu, CHEN Min-jian   

  1. Chinese Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research,Beijing100044,China
  • Received:2001-06-04 Revised:2001-09-26 Online:2002-02-25 Published:2002-02-25

摘要: 水是西北地区生态的关键生境要素,西北地区严重的生态环境问题使得生态需水随着西部开发受到广泛的关注。论文指出生态需水所涉及的理论问题,从生态系统稳定性探讨原始天然生态系统的适宜开发强度,在此基础上,遵循可持续发展的生态观探讨西北地区生态保护与生态建设的模式;从地带性理论和径流形成原理分析西北地区各类自然地理单元上的植被需水规律,从而明确了自然界哪些生态完全靠降水支撑、哪些生态除降水之外还需径流支撑,用生态的排序方法进一步分析干旱地区地下水埋深与植被类型的关系。同时,通过分析土地利用变化与径流形成的关系,以及生物与环境的不可分割性与物竞天择的自然选择原理给出生态需水的概念,从而为量化生态需水提供了理论依据。

关键词: 生态需水, 非地带性植被, 径流, 可持续发展

Abstract: Ecological water requirement is a new research direction of water resources manage-ment.There are many different understandings about this concept.The paper analyses the essence of ecological water requirements basing on sustainable development.It also analyses the principle of vegetation with water that answers the following questions:Which part of vegetation is sus-tained only by precipitation rather than by transforming runoff?Which part of vegetation is sus-tained mostly by runoff?And what relation is between vegetation and groundwater table in dry land?

Key words: ecological water requirement, non-zonal vegetation, precipitation, runoff, sus-tainable development