自然资源学报 ›› 1999, Vol. 14 ›› Issue (4): 334-339.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.04.008

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

土地覆盖变化与普氏原羚和麋鹿的保护

蒋志刚1, 李迪强2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院动物研究所, 北京 100080;
    2. 中国林业科学院森林环境与保护研究所, 北京 100093
  • 收稿日期:1999-04-27 修回日期:1999-07-08 出版日期:1999-12-25 发布日期:1999-12-25
  • 作者简介:蒋志刚(1957-),男,湖南人,博士,中国科学院动物研究所研究员、博士生导师。1995年入选中国 科学院“百人计划”,1996年入选人事部“百千万工程”。主要研究方向:保护生物学。
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院"百人计划";国家杰出青年自然科学基金;国家自然科学基金;中国科学院"九五"重大项目;美国哥仑布动物园协会资助

Land cover change and conservation of Przewalskis gazelle and Père Davids deer

JIANG Zhi gang1, LI Di qiang2   

  1. 1. Institute of Zoology, CAS, Beijing 100080, China;
    2. Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
  • Received:1999-04-27 Revised:1999-07-08 Online:1999-12-25 Published:1999-12-25

摘要: 以普氏原羚Procapraprzewalski和麋鹿Elaphurusdavidianus为例,探讨了土地覆盖变化对中国野生动物的影响和如何在土地覆盖变化的大背景下保存濒危物种。普氏原羚和麋鹿是我国的特有动物。由于近代人口增长、土地利用和土地覆盖变化,普氏原羚分布面积由大变小,濒临绝灭;而随着农田开垦、栖息地丧失,麋鹿最终在野外绝灭。普氏原羚和麋鹿是我国野生动物具有代表性的两个典型例子。土地覆盖变化是我国野生动物濒危的重要原因。在土地覆盖变化的大背景下保存濒危物种的途径有两条:①在野生动物的重要栖息地和繁殖地点建立自然保护区;②对那些已经在野外绝灭,濒临绝灭的野生动物,采取人工圈养,使这些野生动物数量增长,逐步将人工繁育个体重新回归自然。我们正在为普氏原羚建立一个自然保护区,并对麋鹿实施易地保护。从现状分析,麋鹿的重新引入和易地保护是卓有成效的。

关键词: 土地利用, 人口, 濒危物种, 濒危物种再引入

Abstract: We take two large mammal species of China,the Przewalskis gazelle and Père David’s deer as examples to analyze (a)the impact of land cover change on the wildlife fauna in China;and (b)how to preserve endangered wildlife species with the background of environmental changes.Przewalskis gazelle and Père David’s deer are endemic to China.Due to human population increase,land use,and land cover change,the distribution of Przewalskis gazelle declined,whereas the distribution of Père David’s deer gradually reduced in field,finally the species went to extinction in field.Przewalskis gazelle and Père David’s deer are two typical examples of the threatened wildlife in China.The 20th century witnessed human population growth.The human population in Inner Mongolia increased more than 20 times during the last 100 years,in other provinces in Northwest China human population also increased at least 7 times in the same period.Therefore,more and more land has been turned into farmlands and rangelands in order to feed the people.Land cover change modifies wildlife habitats in China.In the process of land cover change,there are two ways to preserve endangered wildlife species:(a)to establish reserves to secure important habitats and breeding grounds of endangered species; and (b)to breed those endangered wildlife species in captivity,and to release the captive bred individuals into nature when the population of endangered species recovers.At present,the establishment of a natural reserve for the Przewalskis gazelle is underway and ex situ conservation strategy for the Père Davids deer has been adopted.Based on the current status of the Père Davids deer in China,the reintroduction and conservation of the endangered species is successful.

Key words: land use, human population, endangered species, reintroduction of endangered species

中图分类号: 

  • F301.2