自然资源学报 ›› 1999, Vol. 14 ›› Issue (1): 1-8.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.01.001

• 论文 •    下一篇

长江洪水与生态建设

李文华   

  1. 中国科学院自然资源综合考察委员会, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:1998-10-12 修回日期:1998-11-11 出版日期:1999-03-25 发布日期:1999-03-25
  • 作者简介:李文华,男,1932年生,中国科学院自然资源综合考察委员会研究员,中国工程院院士,主要专业为森林 生态学,并在自然保护、农林复合经营和青藏高原生态系统的研究方面进行过多年工作。

FLOOD OF YANTZE RIVER AND ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION

Li Wenhua   

  1. Commission for Integrated survey of Natural Resources, CAS, Beijing 100101
  • Received:1998-10-12 Revised:1998-11-11 Online:1999-03-25 Published:1999-03-25

摘要: 1998年长江流域的特大洪水带来了重大的灾难并引起全国人民的关注。文章试图对洪水的原因进行分析。1998年的洪水是多种因素造成的,其中既有自然因素,又有由于人类的不合理的活动,诸如滥伐森林、过牧、围湖造田等造成的。文章对生态重建提出了一系列建议,包括要对流域的土地利用和土地覆被进行综合考察和评价;在流域可持续发展的总体框架下制定生态恢复计划;生态重建工作包括对上游地区森林的严格保护,封山育林,建立防护林体系,发展非木质产业,在高海拔、干旱河谷和不宜造林的地方发展畜牧业等

关键词: 洪水, 土壤侵蚀控制, 生态退化, 生态建设, 生态管理, 河道管理, 森林保护

Abstract: Extremely heavy flood of Yantze River in 1998 has caused great damage and concern of the whole country. This paper intents to give a general analysis about the causes of the flood and the strategy for restoration of degraded ecosystems. It was discovered that the flood of 1998 was caused both by natural factors as well as by unreasonable human activities including deforestation, overgrazing, slope cultivation,reclamation of lake for agricultural cultivation etc. A series of measures for ecological restoration were suggested. These include to: carry out integrated survey and assessment of land cover and land use in the watershed of the Yantze River; establish plan for ecological restoration under the general framework of sustainable development of the watershed; restoration of ecosystems by preservation of natural forest in the upper reaches of the river; closing hills for natural regeneration; conduct establish sheltbelt systems, development of non wood production, develop animal husbandry in high altitude, dry habitat, and difficult for afforestation areas etc.

Key words: flood, soil erosion control, degradation of ecosystems, ecosystem restoration, ecosystem management, watershed management, conservation of forest

中图分类号: 

  • S422