自然资源学报 ›› 1998, Vol. 13 ›› Issue (4): 375-380.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1998.04.015

• 论文 • 上一篇    

中国的红豆杉资源及其开发研究现状与发展对策

包维楷, 陈庆恒   

  1. 中国科学院成都生物研究所
  • 收稿日期:1997-12-08 修回日期:1998-02-24 出版日期:1998-12-25 发布日期:1998-12-25
  • 作者简介:包维楷,男,1968年1月生。1989年毕业于西南林学院林业专业,1992年在中南林学院获森林生态学硕 士学位,1992年至今在中国科学院成都生物研究所工作。现为中国科学院自然资源综合考察委员会博士生, 主要从事混农林业和生物多样性与恢复生态学的研究,公开发表论文8篇。
  • 基金资助:

    四川省科委资助

PRESENT STATUS, PROBLEMS, AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES ON NATURAL TAXUS RESOURCE AND THEIR EXPLOITATION IN CHINA

BAO Weikai, CHEN Qingheng   

  1. Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041
  • Received:1997-12-08 Revised:1998-02-24 Online:1998-12-25 Published:1998-12-25

摘要: 系统论述了红豆杉属植物的生物学和生态学特性,中国所有红豆杉野生资源的分布现状、蕴藏量及可开发前景,紫杉醇的分离、提纯、临床试验等的研究现状,红豆杉资源系统产业开发存在的问题,并提出了发展的重点和对策。为中国的红豆杉野生资源的保护、人工规模化繁殖栽培及其进一步规模产业开发研究提供了理论依据并指明努力方向。

关键词: 红豆杉资源, 紫杉醇, 开发利用, 人工繁殖

Abstract: This paper reviews systematically the ecological and biological characte ristics of Taxus plants, distribution, present storage and usable amounts of wild resources of all species available in China, as well as present status of exploitative research and clinical practices of taxol agents in China.Existing problems in the process of taxus resources exploitation and further development strategies and countermeasures are also revealed. Four species and one variety of Taxus grow in China, namely T. cuspidata Sieb. et Zucc.,T.yunnanensis Chang et L. K. Fu, T. chinensis(Pilger) Rehd., T. wallichianna Zucc., and T.chinensis var. mairei(Lemee et levl.) Chang et L. K. Fu. Except T. chinensis, wild resources storage of other species is not as much as what people expected. The available storage is very limited because of recent excessive exploitation and long time destruction of taxus plant contained forests. Exploitative researches of taxus resources in China mainly focus on organic analysis of chemical composition, separation and purification of taxol, probe into quick expansion of usable taxus resources, searching for alternatives of taxus resources, clinical test of taxol agents, etc. About 110 taxoane diterpenoids have been isolated and identified form all species in China, but taxol is most active in resisting tumos.Taxol contents in different parts of all species in various habitats have concluded and the optimal region where taxus spp. trees with high content of taxol grow and some optimal population have found out. Many units have the capability to isolate taxol, but only a limited number of them can purify and make taxol agents. Because the material for producing taxol is so scarce that many units have started to study artificial asexual propagation and tissue culture technology of taxus spp. plant. The former has been succeeded and is being expanded, but the latter still needs much work to be done. Confirmed by Chinese Health Department in February of 1995, taxol agents produced by several units had been used in clinical experiences and exhibited remarkable potential for the treatment of various cancers and tumors. Taxus resources exploitation in China is now oriented towards taxol industry, however, many problems still need to be solved satisfactorily,such as effecctive protection and research on present wild taxus spp. trees and their habitats, quick development of artificial propagation material by asexual reproduction, technological improvement of purifying taxol extraction and how to reduce resources wastes, etc.

Key words: taxus resource, taxol, exploitative research, artificial asexual reproduction, natural regeneration