自然资源学报 ›› 1998, Vol. 13 ›› Issue (4): 327-332.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1998.04.006

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

农业技术推广过程中制度因素的影响——湖北省天门市棉花害虫综合防治项目案例分析报告

方炎   

  1. 农业部农村经济研究中心
  • 收稿日期:1998-05-20 修回日期:1998-07-18 出版日期:1998-12-25 发布日期:1998-12-25
  • 作者简介:方炎,男,1962年11月出生。现为农业部农村经济研究中心助理研究员、技术经济研究室副主任。1984 年毕业于北京师范大学图书馆系,后获中国农业大学经济管理学院硕士课程结业证书。从1986年起从事农 村经济研究工作。1996~1997年赴湖北省天门市挂职锻炼,任副市长。1996~1998年参加环境与发展国际 培训项目(L EAD项目)。

INSTITUTIONAL IMPACT ON THE EXTENSION PROCESS OF AGRO TECHNOLOGY

FANG Yan   

  1. Research Center for Rural Economy,Ministry of Agriculture,Beijing 100032
  • Received:1998-05-20 Revised:1998-07-18 Online:1998-12-25 Published:1998-12-25

摘要: 针对中国主产棉区在病虫害防治中大量施用化学农药加重农业污染,以及害虫产生抗药性导致防治失灵等问题,由亚洲开发银行(ADB)资助,英联邦国际生物防治研究所(CABI)负责实施,于1993~1996年在中国湖北省天门市建立害虫综合防治(IPM)项目试点,旨在研究和开发控制病虫危害和改善生态环境的适用于中国主产棉区的IPM技术体系。IPM项目有两个特点:①与以往因土地、人口压力而引致的技术变革不同,IPM项目是一项因环境压力而引致的技术变革;②以往的技术变革的阻力大多来自于乡村社会结构尤其是农民对新技术的不接受,而IPM项目在运作层面首先遇到了高度集中的防治体系的阻碍,即受到制度因素的影响。本文着重分析高度集中的防治体系形成的过程和原因,以及制度因素影响IPM项目实施的作用机制,并提出解决问题的政策建议。

关键词: 农业技术推广, 制度因素

Abstract: In view of the deteriorating agricultural pollution caused by application of substantial chemical pesticides to control pest as well as failure control to due to pests resistance to the chemicals in Chinas major cotton producing areas, an IPM pilot project financed by Asian Development Bank and conducted by CABI was implemented in China's Tianmen City,Hubei Province from 1993 to 1996. This project was aimed at studying and developing an IPM technical system suited to Chinas major cotton producing areas in order to control pest damage and improve eco environment.Compared with the guideline and measures of China's plant protection system, the IPM project was more environmental protection oriented technically and more decentralized in terms of decision making (decision making by farmers), both of which were closely related. Theory and practices have proven that technical reform quite often leads to social reform and structural reform. The IPM project has two features in this respect: (a)Unlike the usual technical reform caused by land and population pressure, the IPM project was one caused by environmental pressure;(b) Technical reform used to be pulled back by the rural social structure, especially farmers' resistance to new technology while this IPM project met its major obstacle from highly centralized pest management system, namely the structural factor. The key to the problem is who makes decisions in pest management. Although farmers have the right to operate on their contracted land, they are not the decision makers for pest management of their own land. Because the farmer households are of small scale and separated from each other and cotton pests usually outbreak at a sudden, infect large areas of cotton and have a migratory feature, a highly centralized top to bottom management system has taken shape in Tianmen with the local authorities as the decision makers. Being held responsible for local cotton production, the local authorities take a very prudent attitude towards adoption of every integrated management measure.

Key words: agro technology extension, institutional impact