自然资源学报 ›› 1997, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (3): 204-210.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.03.002

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

我国的矿产资源开发与区域发展

张雷   

  1. 中国科学院国家计划委员会地理研究所, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:1996-01-04 修回日期:1997-03-10 出版日期:1997-09-25 发布日期:1997-09-25
  • 作者简介:张雷,男,1951年8月出生,理学博士,中国科学院-国家计划委员会地理研究所副研究员。主要论文: 电力工业布局规划(1989年),工业结构与工业系统(1990年),Political and T echnical Factors Im ping ing o n P o r t O per a tio n:T he C ase o f N or t he ast Ch in a(1993),R e gio nal P olicy Gr o unde d in M iner al Ex ploitation;A Chinese Example(1994),Ports and Coal Transfer:Hub of China's Energy Policy(1994)。

MINERAL EXPLOITATION AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA

Zhang Lei   

  1. Institute of Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
  • Received:1996-01-04 Revised:1997-03-10 Online:1997-09-25 Published:1997-09-25

摘要: 本文着重从正面探讨我国40多年来区域发展的矿产资源开发效应。主因子和聚类分析结果表明:社会经济增长要素决定着我国东西部地区差异的基本特征;矿业开发活动的专业化分工和发展加速了国家“核心-边缘”二元结构的演进进程;矿业开发对多数发展中地区经济发展作用的大小完全取决于当地资源基础(数量、质量和种类):富则强,贫则弱;矿业开发在区域交通基础设施改善的贡献往往大于资源开发本身,这对发展中地区加强对外联系是至关重要的;在全部要素赋值中,4个正相关变量(能源消费、原材料加工工业固定资产、货运量和每千人医院床位拥有量)代表了我国工业化初期的区域发展的基本过程:即社会生产经济结构的转变极大地刺激了矿产资源的消费增长,迫于此种压力,矿业开发活动得到大力加强,由此引发的全国统一运输网的建立有力地推动区域发展,所有上述变化最终为区域社会经济进入全面“起飞”提供了更多的机遇①。

关键词: 矿产资源开发, 区域发展, 核心-边缘二元结构

Abstract: his study represents an exploratory undertaking to analyse the positive aspects of mineral activity in regional development based on China's industrialization during the past 40 years. The results of addressing at a framework of factor analysis and cluster analysis can be generalized below.(a)The Socio Economic Development Factor dominates the regional pattern of China's industrialization and it implies that the present formation of regional disparities in socio economic development in China is a part of its historical process. The coastal zone is still the most favoured area assemblage of regions in China's modern economy while the interior zone continues to lag behind it.(b)Moreover, the remaining three factors—the Mineral Processing Led Growth Factor, the Coal Mining Led Growth Factor and the Oil Exploitation Led Growth Facto—change nothing regarding the original centre periphery structure. On the contrary, they reinforce the structure through improving the leading position of core regions as a result of the developments in raw material manufacturing.(c)The spatial distributions of social development attaching to both the factor analysis and the cluster analysis indicate that mineral industry can act as a key instrument to stimulate and sustain regional development in most developing areas only in terms of their resource perspective: plentiful resources equals good growth prospects; scanty resources equates with much poorer prospects.(d)Another great contribution of mineral activity to regional development is afforded by the fact that through effecting great improvement in transport infrastructure, the development of mineral industry is critical to the formation of an integrated national transport network: in itself far more effective in promoting regional and interregional development than mineral production alone.(e)Finally, there are only four variables in the whole factor pattern, namely energy consumption, fixed assets of raw material manufacturing, freight traffic volume and number of hospital beds, which have positive loading across all factors. These variables provide an insight into the characteristics of early industrialization in China. First, the structural transformation from an agrarian society to one rooted in industry in a country can cause a great increase in mineral consumption. Second, under this pressure, the social production becomes heavil yengaged in the development of mineral processing. Third, mineral development can further regional development through the inception of a national integrated transport system. Finally, all the developments can provide the region with great opportunities for achievement of social well being conductive with the “take off” point.

Key words: ineral exploitation, regional development, “centreperiphery&rdquo, structure