自然资源学报 ›› 1997, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (2): 183-192.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1997.02.013

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

论中国农业持续发展研究中的若干问题

马忠玉1, 成升魁2   

  1. 1. 中国农业科学院农业自然资源与区划研究所, 北京 100081;
    2. 中国科学院自然资源综合考察委员会, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:1996-05-27 修回日期:1996-09-20 出版日期:1997-06-25 发布日期:1997-06-25
  • 作者简介:马忠玉,33岁,副研究员。1992年获农学博士学位,同年起在中国农业科学院农业区划研究所工作, 1994~1995年在英国爱丁堡大学(T he U nive rsity of Edinbur gh)作博士后研究。回国后在原单位工作,现为持续农业与乡村发展研究室主任,中国可持续发展研究会持续农业专业委员会副秘书长,国家21世纪议程管理 中心持续农业顾问。国际、国内公开发表论文30余篇,合作出版专著6部。

ON SOME PROBLEMS IN THE STUDY OF SUSTAINABLEAGRICULTURE IN CHINA

Ma Zhongyu1, Cheng Shengkui2   

  1. 1. Institute of Natural Resource and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081;
    2. Commission for Integrated Survey of Natural Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
  • Received:1996-05-27 Revised:1996-09-20 Online:1997-06-25 Published:1997-06-25

摘要: “持续农业的研究对象”、“农牧结合问题”、“粮食问题”“农业生产布局”以及“中国农业生产效率”一直是我国学术界与政策决策阶层争论与关注的热点。五大“热点”不仅影响我国农业生产的正确决策,也影响着我国农业研究的方向。作者根据近年研究实践,结合国内外的大量研究成果,从理论与实践2个方面对上述问题进行了实事求是的分析、论述。①“持续农业”是学术术语,并不是农业替代模式,持续农业的研究对象则是促进农业持续发展的技术体系与管理战略,以此促进农业向环境健康与安全的方向发展,并不是“创造”一种新的农业生产模式完全替代常规农业;②我国农牧结合研究依然停留在古时期“种植业提供饲料,畜牧业提供畜粪还田培肥地力”这一传统观念阶段。农牧结合研究应该在我国农、牧生产专业化进一步深化的基础上,从饲料能量蛋白质供给与消费平衡这一深层次上优化和把握农牧结合强度及其协调性,同时要高度重视我国畜牧业生产专业化可能引发的农、牧“分离”及其潜在的环境问题;③有计划地节制食物消费的增长速度、引导膳食结构的转变与合理引导并积极寻找粮食替代资源,是解决我国粮食生产在经济高速增长前提下粮食供需缺口不断扩张的主要途径;④我国种植业生产发展空间格局的重心应摆

关键词: 持续农业, 农牧结合, 粮食, 农业生产布局, 农业生产效率

Abstract: Agricultural production efficiency,crop livestock integration, grain problem, layout of agricultural production and object of the study of sustainable agriculture have been highlighted by scientists and decision makers in China.These problelms play a crucial role not only in correct policy making, but aslo in the direction of agricultural research. There have been, however, some confusions and misunderstandings in the current viewpoints held by some of the scientists and decision makers in China. Pointing at this situation, this paper makes a significant discussion for the sake of finding a correct answer through a profound analysis and statement based on the researches conducted by the authors themselves and a large amount of study results collected at home and abroad.The conclusions are: (a)Sustainable agriculture is an academic term, not a new model for replacing the conventional agriculture, and the study of sustainable agriculture should give priority to developing input reducing technology and increasing farmers income in order to make Chinas agriculture environmentally sound and healthy; (b)The emphasis of researches on crop livestock integration should be shifted to focusing on how to adjust the composition of energy and protein in feed supplied by cropping and consumed by livestock; (c)The main ways for eliminating the increase of grain shortage in China are to put the strategy of grain substitution into practice as soon as possible and to properly restrain food consumption which has been highly speeded up; (d)According to the principle of less external input and higher efficiency, the priority of developing grain production should be placed on the high yield farmland rather than on medium yield farmland; and (e)The energy efficiency in Chians agricultural production has increased from time to time, which is very important for a correct policy making in China's sustainable agriculture.

Key words: ustainable agriculture, croplivestock integration, grain, layout of agricultural production, agricultural production efficiency