自然资源学报 ›› 1996, Vol. 11 ›› Issue (3): 203-209.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1996.03.002

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

充分发挥作物品种资源在粮食增产中的作用

娄希祉, 方嘉禾, 郑殿升   

  1. 中国农业科学院作物品种资源研究所
  • 出版日期:1996-09-25 发布日期:1996-09-25

ON ALLOWING FULL PLAY TO THE ROLE OF CROP GERMPLASM RESOURCES IN INCREASING FOOD PRODUCTION

Lou Xizhi, Fang Jiahe, Zheng diansheng   

  1. Institute of Crop Germplasm Resources, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  • Online:1996-09-25 Published:1996-09-25

摘要: 我国十分重视品种资源的收集保存和研究利用,并利用各种优异品种资源育成一批又一批新品种,主要粮食作物推广的品种经历了4~5次更换,随之粮食作物产量由50年代的1155kg/hm2增加到1994年的4065kg/hm2。迄今,我国收集的粮食作物品种资源约24万份,并对其中20万份进行了主要农艺性状、品质、抗逆、抗病虫鉴定和评价,筛选出大量具有优良性状的资源,有的已在我国粮食增产中发挥了明显作用,应充分利用新技术,加速现有粮食作物品种资源的鉴定和开发利用;根据生产和育种的需要,不断收集新资源,深入鉴定筛选优良资源;并创造新物种或中间材料。

关键词: 作物, 品种资源, 粮食, 增产

Abstract: Crop germplasm resources are an important component part of biodiversity and are the material base of agricultural development. Especially they play an important role in increasing food production. Thus, the effective protection and sustained utilization of crop germplasm resources are treated as an essential matter related to the national economy and the people's livelihood in the scientifically and technologically developed countries, such as the United States, Japan, France, Russia, United Kingdom, etc. In China, the collection, conservation, study and utilization of crop germplasm resources are also paid great attention,and a large number of new varieties have been bred through using the excellent ones. After the popularized varieties of main food crop were replaced 4 to 5 times, the food yield were increased from 1 155kg / hm2 in the 1950's to 4065kg /hm2 in 1994. So far, about 240 thou sand portions of food crop germplasm resources have been collected, and 20 thousand of them identified and evaluated for the main agricultural characters, quality, tolerance to environmental stresses, and resistance to diseases and pests. A great number of resources with desirable characters have been screened out, and some of them have played a great role or will play a still greater role in increasing food production. However, compared with the advanced countries, our country still has a long way to go. Therefore, various new techniques should be fully utilized to accelerate the identification and exploitation of the current food crop germplasm resources. Furthennore, new resources should be also continued to collect and screen on the basis of the needs of breeding and production. It is also necessary to create new species or medium materials to provide the breeders with various excellent resources that do not exist before. This will lay a foundation for the sustained development of our food production.

Key words: crop, germplasm resources, food, increase in yield