自然资源学报 ›› 1995, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (4): 332-338.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1995.04.004

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

野生动物资源的保护与持续利用

蒋志刚   

  1. 中国科学院动物研究所, 北京 100080
  • 出版日期:1995-12-25 发布日期:1995-12-25

CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF WILDLIFE RESOURCE

Jiang Zhigang   

  1. Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • Online:1995-12-25 Published:1995-12-25

摘要: 本文从非洲南部的大象、澳大利亚的大袋鼠到北美的野生动物管理体制、欧洲的野生动物狩猎、新西兰草地牧业的转轨,回顾了世界野生动物利用与保护的历史。并追溯了我国古代野生动物管理思想,以黄羊、虎两个实例,分析了我国野生动物资源濒危的原因与现状。最后,探讨了野生动物资源保护与开发的辩证关系,提出了野生动物利用分为开发初期、过度开发期、保护恢复期及持续利用期,目前我国野生动物资源正处于保护恢复期。

关键词: 野生动物, 生物多样性, 保护, 持续开发

Abstract: This paper first reviews the definition of the sustainable use of wildlife resource as a renewable resource. Then it looks into the cases of wildlife conservation and exploitation in Africa, North America, Europe , Australia and New Zealand. The noticed items include the recovery of once endangered elephants in Zimbabwe, the participation of local people in wildlife conservation in Southern Africa, the evolution of wildlife management system in North America,the importance of hunting to the economy of Western Germany, the game ownership and hunting licenses system of European countries, the significance of transforming the pastoral animal industry into deer industry in New Zealand and the management of kangaroos in Australia. It also reviews the traditional wildlife managernent ideas in ancient China and outlines two examples of over exploitation of wild species in modern China.Finally, the relationship between wildlife resource conservation and exploitation is discussed. It points out that the wildlife resource use in human history should be divided into four eras:the era of early exploitation,the era of over exploitation,the era of conservation and recovery and the era of sustainable use. However, due to the different characteristics of particular country and specific species,there are no universal rules guiding the management of wildlife resource. Now the wildlife resource in China is in the era of conservation and recovery.

Key words: wildlife, biodiversity, conservation, sustainable exploitation