自然资源学报 ›› 1989, Vol. 4 ›› Issue (4): 355-361.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1989.04.008

• 学报动态 • 上一篇    下一篇

生态学的过去、现在和未来

阳含熙   

  1. 中国科学院国家计划委员会自然资源综合考察委员会
  • 出版日期:1989-12-25 发布日期:1989-12-25

ECOLOGY——ITS PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE

Yang Hanxi   

  1. The Commisson for Integrated Survey of Natural Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • Online:1989-12-25 Published:1989-12-25

摘要: 现代生态学的发展史尝试性地分为5个阶段:1.生态学的建立时期(1866—1903年)E.Hackel(1866)给生态学建立定义。Schrter(1903)将生态学分为个体生态学和群落生态学。这一期间Warming和Schimper的两本著作影响最大。2.植物生态学和动物生态学平行发展时期(1904—1958年)植物生态学以植物群落学研究为主流,主要有英美学派、法瑞学派、北欧学派和苏联学派。3.生态系统研究时期(1959—1974年)国际生物学计划(1964—1974年)是学术主流,其他生态学研究也有新发展。4.生态科学时期(1975—1983年)生态学已经形成一个生态科学网络,可按5种标准分成数十种生态学。5.新生态学孕育时期(1984至今)生态学的传统概念例如达尔文的竞争理论在受到挑战。新发现和新见解大量出现。

关键词: 生态学, 新生态学, 生态科学

Abstract: The development of modern ecology is ten :atively classified into 5 stages as follows:1. The establishment of ecology stage (1866-1903)This stage refers to the period from the definition of ecology by E. Hackel (1966) to the seporation of autoecology and synecology by C. Schroter (1903). The importance of two books of Warming and Schimper is emphasized.2. The parallel development of plant ecology and animal ecology stage (1904-1958)——The study of plant community stageEmphasis is laid on the study of plant community by 4 main Schools, i.e., Anglo-American School, Zurich-Monpellier School, Upssala School, and Soviet Union School.3. The Ecosystem Stage (1959-1974)The International Biological Programme (1964-1974) is described as the meinstream of ecological study. New developments in other fields are mentioned as well.4. The ecological sciences stage (1975--1983)Ecology has been developed into a network of ecological sciences which can be classified by 5 different criteria. Many new interdisciplinary fielde have been developed.5. The Conceiving of "New ecology" stage (1984-)The traditional ecological principls. like Darwin's "struggle of existance",are challenged. New discoveries and ideas are burgeoning in different fields of ecology.

Key words: Ecology: new ecology: eeosyotem, ecological science