自然资源学报 ›› 1989, Vol. 4 ›› Issue (4): 298-307.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1989.04.002

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

羌塘高原水资源及其开发利用

陈传友, 关志华   

  1. 中国科学院国家计划委员会自然资源综合考察委员会
  • 出版日期:1989-12-25 发布日期:1989-12-25

THE WATER RESOURCES OF THE QIANG-TANG PLATEAU AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT AND USE

Chen Chuanyou, Guan Zhihua   

  1. The Commission for Integrated Survey of Natural Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • Online:1989-12-25 Published:1989-12-25

摘要: 地跨西藏、新疆、青海3省(区)的羌塘高原是我国青藏高原的主体部分,平均海拔5000m以上,总面积71.6×104km2,占我国陆地面积的7.5%。整个高原严寒干燥,湖泊众多,河流短小,冰川发育,是世界上待开发的一块最高最新的内陆大高原。现有地表、地下迳流约236.15×108m3,水质符合饮用与灌溉要求。但目前基本流入湖泊后破蒸发,如果大量开发迳流势必破坏水循环规律,人为地加速湖泊的消亡。为解决今后工农牧业用水,只能千方百计减少蒸发,取得可利用水量,达到发展经济维持生态平衡的目的。

关键词: 海拔, 地表迳流, 地下迳流, 迳流深, 灌水定额, 自流灌溉

Abstract: The Qiang-tang Plateau is the main part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. . Its average height is more than 5,000 metres above sea-level and its total area covers 71.6,000 square kilometres,occupying 7.5% of the land area-of our country.The' whole 'plateau "is cold and dry and has "many lakes, glaciers, and rivers. It is the highest and newest large inland plateau in the world. Water is the lifeblood of the living creatures and plants on the plateau. It has about 23.615 billion cubic metres of water, including the surface runoff and the ground water. The average-modulus of water is 33,000 cubic metres/km2, but at present it is evaporated after flowing into the lakes. If we overdevelop -he runoff water resource, it will lead to the violation of law of water circulation and artificially accelerate the perishment of the lakes. So, in .order to solve the problem of water for industry and agriculture in the future, what we should do is to try every means" "to "reduce the evaporation and get hold of the water available. It is by way of this that our economy can be developed and the ecological balance of the plateau can be maintained.

Key words: height above sea level, surface "runoff, ground runoff, runoff depth, irrigation reguirement, irrigation by gravity