自然资源学报 ›› 1988, Vol. 3 ›› Issue (4): 335-347.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1988.04.005

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

森林-水资源系统的理论分析

徐嵩龄   

  1. 中国环境科学研究院生态所
  • 出版日期:1988-12-25 发布日期:1988-12-25

THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF FOREST-HYDRORESOURCE SYSTEM

Xu Songling   

  1. Institute of Enviormental Ecology, Chinese Academy of Envtormental Sciences
  • Online:1988-12-25 Published:1988-12-25

摘要: 本文认为,应当从森林-水资源系统出发研究森林与水资源的关系。并提出了一个分析森林-水资源系统产流过程的仿真模拟方法,得出在一定条件下,有森林植被的地方可能会比无森林植被的地方产生更多的能够为人类所利用的水资源的结论;进一步提出了构成最佳水资源生成系统的四项条件。作者分析了森林对降雨的影响,认为二次降雨和水平降雨对水资源量的直接影响很小;由于森林是大气的特殊下垫面具有软边界和强烈的物质能量变换的特点,加之森林蒸散的水汽和释放的凝结核等因素,可能会影响大气垂直降雨的空间分布,或提高产生降雨的可能性,从而使有林地区有增雨效果。最后对森林-水资源的研究方法提出了几点建议。

关键词: 森林-水资源系统, 产流效应, 增雨效应, 模拟

Abstract: The relationship between forest and hydroresource is discussed in this paper. Author holds that whether or not forest can increase precipitation and runoff deponds on the behaviour of fopest-hydroresource system that includes six subsets, such as forest, hydrology, soil, geography, meteorology and climate. A model of producing runoff is suggested and pionts out that some area of forest can produce more runoff than that of on fourest on certain condition, and the optimal hydroresource system must meet four criteria: 1. .don't bring about flood; 2. don't bring about soil erosion; 3. don't disturb local natural ecosystem; 4; produce hydro-resource as much as possible. Then, the effect of forestoon precipitation is analyzed, forest can change space distribution of precipitation and increase possibility of regional precipitation, because of two characters of forest as boundary layer of atmosphere: 1. "soft"; 2. intense exchange between fored and atmosphere. These are two forms of increasing precipitation. At last, several suggestions on the method for research in forest-hydroresource system are made.

Key words: forest-hydroresource system, effect to producing runoff, effect to increasing precipitation, modelling