自然资源学报 ›› 1986, Vol. 1 ›› Issue (1): 56-64.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1986.01.007

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

海南岛综合自然资源特点与热带农业生产的发展

席承藩   

  1. 中国科学院南京土壤研究所
  • 出版日期:1986-06-25 发布日期:1986-06-25

NATURAL RESOURCES OF HAINAN ISLAND RELATED TO THE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

Xi Chengfan   

  1. Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • Online:1986-06-25 Published:1986-06-25

摘要: 海南岛是我国第二大岛,面积约34000km2(5077万亩)。北临琼州海峡同雷州半岛隔海相望,扼守着祖国的南大门。本岛也是我国面积最大的热带岛屿,自然资源丰富。因此,海南岛生产建设的发展,对我国国防、经济、农业现代化,都有着重大的意义。 海南岛总面积占我国热带、南亚热带面积的7%。面积虽不大,但其自然条件却相当复杂。岛内东、南、西、北气候不同,中部地形复杂,气候垂直变化显著。因此,在安排与发

关键词: 经济作物, 热带雨, 合理利用, 雷州半岛, 防风效果, 红树林, 资源特点, 海南岛, 热带农业, 生产的发展

Abstract: Hainan Island is situated in the north periphery of tropical region.It shows monsoonal characteristics of seasonal alternation of hydrothermal condition. The mean annual rainfall is 1000-2000mm. However, the annual precipitation and seasonal distribution is very uneven. Approximately 80% of annual rain occurs from July to September period mostly in the form of typhoon storm. On the east central section of the Island mean annual rainfall is 2000-2500mm; on the west of the coastal region is less than 1000mm. The most heavy rainfall is up to 5500mm. on the east slope of Wuzhi Mountain Thus, it is characterized by humid climate in the east part, while arid climate in the west.Its mean annual temperature is above 23℃, but its absolute minimum temperature may be around 2% during winter time in the northern pan of the Island, which may cause great damage to rubber trees and other tropical economic crops. However in the southern part, the absolute minimum temperature never falls below 5℃,strong so it is safe for the growth of rubber treesThe main soil type is latosol. Under strong chemical weathering, it contains high content of clay and is rich in sesqui-oxide with strong acid reaction. The organk matter decomposes rapidly, and the properties of the soils are low content of organic matter and alto low exchangeable bases. The properties of the soil are quite different on the Island. This shows high degree of hydration with yellowish tint and rainforest landscape in the eastern part, while arid and sandy with savanna landscape in the western.On the basis of the above mentioned, facts, the following problems are discussed.1. To pay attention to reforestation in mountainous and hilly regions to prevent soil erosion and planting wind-break forest along the sea coast.2. To further extend planting of rubber trees and other tropical economic plants run by the state and local people.3. To raise the yield per unit area of. cereals and to promote the self-sufficienty cereal production.In addition, developing fishery along the sea coasts such as shrimps, shellfishes, pearl shell raising, etc. is also discussed.