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ISSN 0256-307X(Print)
ISSN 1741-3540 (Online)
CN 11-1959/O4
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  JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES--2017, 32 (3)   Published: 20 March 2017
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Resource Evaluation

Spatiotemporal Variation of Vegetation Coverage before and after Implementation of Grain for Green Project in the Loess Plateau

ZHAO An-zhou, ZHANG An-bing, LIU Hai-xin, LIU Yan-xu, WANG He-feng, WANG Dong-li
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (3): 0449 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160411
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As an ecologically vulnerable area in China, the Loess Plateau has been indicated by many studies to have a significant increase trend in vegetation coverage. However, it is required to clarify the growing trend before and after the implementation of the Grain for Green Project. Based on the third generation of Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GIMMS NDVI3g) dataset, this study investigated the patterns of spatiotemporal variation of vegetation coverage and the possible environmental factors in the Loess Plateau during 1982-2013, 1982-1999 and 2000-2013 using the Sen+Mann-Kendall model, partial correlation analysis, Mann-Kendall test and Hurst index. The results are as follows: 1) the growing season Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of the study area increased progressively during the periods of 1982-2013, 1982-1999 and 2000-2013, with the rate of 0.019/10 a, 0.016/10 a and 0.057/10 a, respectively. 2) The growing season NDVI of five vegetation types significantly increased during the three periods, especially during 2000-2013, except the forest during 1982-1999. 3) Vegetation coverage showed a decreasing trend from southeast to northwest, and there was an abrupt decrease in the middle of the Loess Plateau. 4) The reverse characteristics of growing season NDVI change were stronger than the same characteristics in the Loess Plateau. Some 31.08% of the Loess Plateau will follow a continuous increasing trend, while 61.88% of the entire study area is predicted to decrease in future. 5) The vegetation coverage was mainly affected by climate change and human activities. Our results also indicated that increasing precipitation is a factor that results in the improvement of the vegetation coverage. In terms of human activity, our result indicted that there was a strong correlation between the cumulative afforestation area and growing season NDVI during 1999-2013.

Water Storage Changes in the Middle Reaches of the Yellow River Basin Based on GRACE Time Variable Gravitation Model

LI Ai-hua, CUI Sheng-yu, WANG Hong-rui, YU Chen
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (3): 0461 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160233
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This study targets the middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin where the huge changes have been taking place in the water cycle process. By constructing GRACE satellite gravitational field model, the water storage changes in the middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin were inverted and the result was validated. The result derived from GRACE satellite and that from water balance model show the same temporal trend of water storage change, the square of the correlation coefficient being 0.82. The amount of water storage over the middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin had an increasing trend from 2003 to 2012, and the average annual increasing amount was water storage change equivalent water depth. The increase of water storage was caused by the decrease in runoff loss in the middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin, that the average annual decreasing amount was 2.93 mm equivalent water depth. There was obvious spatial variation of the water storage change. The most obvious increasing of water storage is at Longmen-Sanmenxia section, where the average annual increasing amount was 4.59 mm equivalent water depth. The second is at the Hekou-Longmen section, where the average annual increasing amount was 3.47 mm equivalent water depth. And the last one is at Sanmenxia-Huayuankou section, where the average annual increasing amount was 2.71 mm equivalent water depth.

Spatial-temporal Analysis of Sustainable Water Resources Utilization in Shandong Province Based on Water Footprint

YU Hao-zhe, HAN Mei
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (3): 0474 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160406
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The paper takes Shandong Province as the study area because of its low per capita occupancy of water resources and unbalanced structure of water resources utilization. Firstly, the water footprint of Shandong Province during 2005-2014 and the water footprint of 17 cities in 2014 were calculated to realize the spatial-temporal analysis of the water footprint. Based on the results and DPSIR theory, a comprehensive index system was constructed. Afterwards, the factor analysis was introduced, and strength of sustainable water resources utilization in the province in 10 years was reflected by the comprehensive factor score. The comprehensive factor scores of 17 cities in 2014 were calculated and clustered with spatial and temporal analysis. The results showed that: the comprehensive score was increasing during 2005-2014, which suggested that the degree of sustainable utilization tend to be strengthened. However, the score is low in general, and the efficiency of water utilization need to be improved. The levels of sustainable water resources utilization of 17 cities in 2014 presented spatial differentiation that the east was superior to the west and the south was superior to the north.

Comprehensive Evaluation of the Water Resource Carrying Capacity Based on DPSIRM

GUO Qian, WANG Jia-yang, ZHANG Bi
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (3): 0484 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160335
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By inherent mechanism study of water resource system, an evaluation index system based on DPSIRM model is established which takes the influences including resource, ecology, environment, economy and society into consideration. The paper gives the clear definition of each subsystem, which reflects the scientific relationship between each factor within the system. On that basis, coupling SA-PP model is established, and the parameters of projection pursuit are optimized by simulated annealing. The model is used to evaluate the water resource carrying capacity of Yunnan Province from 2003 to 2012, and the projection eigenvalues are analyzed. The study shows that, from 2003 to 2012, the water resources carrying capacity of Yunnan Province was increasing steadily. Under the current situation of economic and social development, water resource carrying capacity can carry the social economic development. Before 2006, the resource carrying capacity had an increasingly enlarged tendency, showing great potential of growth. After 2006, the fluctuation of water resources carrying capacity increased. The growth of water resource carrying capacity was close to zero in 2009 and 2011. The best projection direction reflects the impact degree of each index on water resource carrying capacity, the greater the value, the greater the impact of the corresponding evaluation index on the water resources carrying capacity. The main indexes affecting the water resource carrying capacity are the domestic sewage emissions, the “three wastes” control investment, per capital GDP, the water consumption per unit GDP and the forest coverage. The pressure subsystem accounts for 26.15% of water resource carrying capacity, being the most important factor. This model is practical, which can provide scientific basis for the planning and management of regional water resource.

Variation Characteristics of the Date of First Frost and Last Frost and the Frost-free Period in the Northeast China during 1961-2013

ZHOU Xiao-yu, ZHAO Chun-yu, CUI Yan, LIU Ming-yan, AO Xue, YI Xue, HOU Yi-ling, ZHANG Xin-yi
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (3): 0494 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160379
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Based on the daily minimum and average temperature data of 162 meteorological stations over the Northeast China from 1961 to 2014, the characteristics of the first frost date, the last frost date and the frost-free period in recent 53 years in Northeast China are analyzed.The results show that: the average date of the first frost and the last frost is September 28 and May 5, the average frost-free period is 145 d. Among the 162 stations in Northeast China, there are 155 stations where the first frost date became later, and there are 160 stations where the last frost date became earlier, and there are 158 stations where the frost-free period had been prolonged during the past 53 years. The first frost date has significantly delayed at the rate of 1.55 d/10 a, the last frost date has moved up at the rate of 2.51 d/10 a, and the frost-free period has prolonged at the rate of 4.08 d/10 a over the past 53 years. The changing characteristics of the frost reflects the climate warming (0.3 ℃/10 a). Along with the increase of the latitude and the altitude, the first frost date became earlier, the last frost date became later and frost-free period became shorter. The influence of the minimum temperature is bigger than the influence of average temperature. The first frost date, the last frost date and frost-free period had abrupt change in 1986, 1989 and 1986, respectively. The mutation of the frost in the three provinces all occurred in the 1980s and 1990s. After the mutation, the multi-year average contours of the first frost date, the last frost date and the frost-free period in the Northeast China all pushed northward.

The Inter-Decadal Variations of Species Composition and Diversity of Nekton Community in Yangtze Estuary Fishing Grounds in Winter

LI Jian-sheng, JIANG Ya-zhou, JIN Yan
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (3): 0507 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160318
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According to fishery survey data in the Yangtze estuary fishing grounds in three representative winters from 1991 to 2011, the inter-decadal variation of the nekton community in the area were studied. The results showed that the composition, the fishery resources density, the dominant species, the diversity and size spectrum of nekton species all changed significantly from 1991 to 2011 in the Yangtze estuary fishing grounds. The number of the nekton species overall showed an increasing trend, in which the number of fish species increased a little, but the number of crustaceans and cephalopods increased greatly. The density indices, including weights and individual quantity, all had increasing trend after a falling trend at the beginning, but the amplitudes of them were different. The average weight fell sharply at first and then kept dropping slightly. The number of dominant species was seven, nine and seven in 1991, 2001 and 2011 respectively, and the dominant species changed dramatically. The common dominant species in the three years were Ovalipes punctatus and Harpadon nehereus. The average number of nekton species at all stations showed a sustained increase, but the average richness, the diversity indices, and the evenness indices all firstly increased and then decreased. The average dissimilarity were higher than 60% between 1991 and 2011, 1991 and 2001. But the average dissimilarity between 2001 and 2011 was lower (36.05%). The number of main species which caused community difference was increasing, ecological groups have gradually expanded. The nekton size spectrum was gradually narrowed, mainly due to the species succession in the community, the increasing of small fish population and the decreasing of large fish population age structure etc.
Resource Research Method

Evaluation of MODIS MOD16 Evaportranspiration Product in Chinese River Basins

JIANG Yan-yang, WANG Wen, ZHOU Zheng-hao
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (3): 0517 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160440
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MODIS MOD16 evapotranspiration (ET) product is widely used in various applications in geosciences, and the product has been evaluated by many researchers in different regions over the world. However, when evaluating the ET product on catchment scales, previous studies were conducted on the annual scale under the assumption of no terrestrial water storage (TWS) change. But the annual TWS change is not negligible, and ignoring the TWS change may result in big biases when evaluating MOD16/ET product. In addition, the use of ET product on monthly scale is often required in many applications. In the present study, the monthly MODIS MOD16/ET product of Chinese river basins during 2002-2013 are compared with actual evapotranspiration (WBET) which is calculated based on the principle of water balance from ground observed precipitation data, discharge data, GRACE satellite observed terrestrial water storage (TWS) data and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) simulated TWS data. The results show that: 1) on the annual scale, MOD16/ET is overestimated except for Songhua River Basin, and the difference between MOD16/ET and WBET increases from the Songhua River Basin in the north to the Yangtze River Basin in the south; 2) on the monthly scale, MOD16/ET tends to be overestimated compared to WBET in low value range (<20 mm/month) and underestimated in high value range (>20 mm/month), and the overestimation is prevalent across China in the period from November to March, but the consistency between MOD16/ET and WBET differs among the catchments in other months; 3) the consistency between monthly MOD16/ET and WBET is better in exorheic basins than in endorheic basin, better in the Songhua River Basin in northeastern China than in the Yangtze River Basin in the southern China.
Resource Utilization and Management

A Comparative Study of the National Man-land Relationship

ZHANG Lei, LIU Yi, YANG Bo
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (3): 0353 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160341
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As a part of the earth’s living creatures, we humans have been making use of natural resources and environment as our first need for survival and development, and this remains the same even in the modern period. In fact, with the rapid growth of social wealth and population, maintaining a stable of the so-called man-land relationship is always the primary task and basic goal of national sustainable development, especially for big countries. An integrated factor analysis covering natural endowment (fresh water, arable land, grassland, wood land, energy and minerals) and human activity (population, GDP and CO2 emission) shows that there is one thing in common for all the 11 selected countries (>100 million people). Under the polarization effects of natural resources use, the national man-land relationship of these countries today have been proven to be aggravated and worsened in various degrees, although the characteristics of their natural endowments are very different. In 1950, for instance, there was only one country registered to have to deal with its overall intensified national man-land relationship, but in 2010 there were six countries. It is also important that the intensified national man-land relationship has been confirmed to play as an amplifier of the harm caused by natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, floods and droughts. Regarding these changes, the Japanese practice is the most convincing.

The Variation Characteristics and Control Measures of theUrban Construction Land in China

FANG Chuang-lin, LI Guang-dong, ZHANG Qiang
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (3): 0363 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160361
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The dynamic changes in the total amount and the structure of urban construction land are barometers to measure the health and efficiency of regional urbanization. From 1981 to 2014, vast changes have occurred in quantity, average per capita area and sprawling elastic coefficient of urban construction land in China. The area of urban construction land increased 6.44 times, which means annual increase of 1 311 km2 in the past 35 years. Per capita urban construction land increased 2.78 times, with annual increase of 2.37 m2. The speed of urban construction land expansion was significantly higher than that of population growth, and presented a large undulating change trend. The structure of urban construction land changed stably as a whole. The total amount of various types of urban construction land in the eastern region accounted for over 50% of the whole nation, which decreased slightly in recent years. The proportion of urban construction land of large, medium and small cities in China remained 50%, 20%, and 30% respectively. The main issues of urban construction land expansion in China during the last 35 years are mainly: 1) the urban construction land spread disorderly that lead to high per capita construction land; 2) the structure of urban construction land is not harmonious, which reduce the efficiency of urban land intensive use; 3) the urbanization and economic growth depended overly on construction land, and this trend is difficult to reverse in short term; 4) too many new city zones have been built in recent years and the area is too large, which exacerbated the expansion of urban construction land. Hence, the urban construction land control in China in the future should be preventing the urban sprawl disorderly, raising the level of land intensive use, optimizing the structure and function of urban construction land and making the cities growth intensively, working out the differential control measures according to local conditions, and guiding the new city zones to rational and moderate development.

Comprehensive Development and Utilization Strategy of Inefficient and Idle Railway Land: Methods and Cases Study

LIU Jing, JIN Xiao-bin, ZHANG Zhi-fei, BAO Gui-ye, YANG Xu-hong, HUANG Xue-feng, LU Yu-ying, ZHOU Yin-kang
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (3): 0377 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160424
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Railway is one of the important infrastructures for national economic and social development. With the rapid development of railway construction, the railway land is constantly expanding. There exist a certain number of inefficient/idle railway lands, which are induced by the industrial characteristics, railway route planning & functional design, land resource management and other factors. There are certain characteristics of railway lands including public welfare, free transfer, and unlimited duration of usage. Under the circumstances of increasingly prominent bottleneck of land resources, the comprehensive development and utilization of inefficient and idle railway land resource is of great significance, which will enhance the efficiency of resource utilization, improve the value of land resource, promote the regional development and improve the quality of environment. In order to promote the healthy development of railway industry and speed up the reform of railway enterprises, currently, several policies were proposed to revitalize the existing railway land and raise the efficiency of land use. It is of great significance to fully exploit the inefficient /idle railway land resources on the basis of ensuring the safety of railway transportation. The efficient use of the stock of railway land not only performs in the utilization benefit, but also reflects in the dynamic temporal changes. According to current situation of railway land use and the utilization efficiency, the stock of railway land can be divided into three categories, including normal use, inefficient use and idle state. There is a certain number of reserved land for development in practice because of the particularity of railway planning. In order to bring the inefficient and idle railway land resources into full play, a reasonable approach of comprehensive development and utilization should be adopted. Combining with the type of land use, land-use efficiency, city planning and other factors, this paper proposed a utilization strategy based on the potential evaluation of inefficient/idle railway lands. Meanwhile, the reform of inefficient/idle railway land into construction land can be divided into several categories, such as commercial service industry, urban landscape transformation, urban rail transportation, industrial warehousing services, etc. The selections of the corresponding comprehensive utilization types are based on the location, the traffic convenience, the completeness of service facilities, and other aspects of site conditions. Four cases of inefficient and idle railway land in Nanjing city were selected as study cases. By using the comprehensive evaluation framework and multi-source data, the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the methodology.

Urban Growth Boundary Delimitation of Resource-exhausted Cities: A Case Study of Huaibei City

LIU Hui, ZHANG Zhi-yun, SHUI Wei, WANG Qian-feng, YANG Yi-wei
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (3): 0391 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160425
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Urban growth boundary(s) (UGB(s)) is one of the important technologies and policy tools for urban spatial growth management. Currently, the research on the delineation of UGB(s) of resource-exhausted cities is little, lacking of unified and mature scientific delineation method.
Resource Economics

Measurement and Convergence Analysis of Green Water Utilization Efficiency

MA Hai-liang, DING Yuan-qing, WANG Lei
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (3): 0406 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160381
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To make full use of water resources and achieve ecological environment values, the undesirable outputs must be considered when we research water utilization efficiency. Using provincial panel data of China during 2003-2013, the green water utilization efficiency considering environmental pollution was measured with Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index. On this basis, cluster analysis and convergence tests of each region were made. The results showed that: 1) for the country as a whole, the dynamic green water utilization efficiency considering environmental constraints is lower than the water utilization efficiency without considering environmental constraints, namely the water resource utilization efficiency is overrated when ignoring undesirable outputs. This also shows that false high values of traditional water resources use efficiency are at the cost of ecological destruction. 2) The national dynamic green water utilization efficiency increased by 3.3%, in which technological progress has played a positive role, but technical efficiency is an obvious obstacle for improving the water use efficiency. 3) The green water utilization efficiency tend to steady growth in the whole country and in the eastern and central regions, but the growth of green water utilization efficiency in the western area is increasing. The growth rate of green water utilization efficiency in the western area is convergent but is not absolute convergent in β condition. Finally, we propose the following suggestions according to the research results: the economic value and ecological environmental value of water resources should be paid highly attention to; independent innovation and industrial structure adjustment also should be taken into consideration so as to enhance green water resources utilization efficiency by technological progress; the internal dynamic mechanism of water-saving and emission reduction should be established, and the regional gap of green water resources utilization should be reduced.

Assessment on Grassland Ecosystem Services in Qinghai Province during 1998-2012

ZHAO Miao-miao, ZHAO Hai-feng, LI Ren-qiang, ZHANG Li-yun, ZHAO Feng-xia, LIU Li-xiang, SHEN Rui-chang, XU Ming
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (3): 0418 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160421
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Because of the interference of human activities in the grassland ecosystem, grassland degradation intensifies. Scientific valuation of grassland ecosystem services is of great significance for grassland conservation and management. Through the integration of multi-source, multi-scale and multi-process ecological environment data in Qinghai Province, and combined with large-scale field survey data, both specific and comprehensive databases were set up. Based on the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) classification system and Costanza’s classification methods of ecosystem services, we selected the Qinghai ecosystem services evaluation index system according to the characteristics and ecological status of ecosystem in Qinghai, and developed a data-model fusion platform to quantify the values of Qinghai grassland ecosystem services during 1998-2012. It consists of 16 kinds of services, for example, solid carbon release oxygen, hydrology regulation, soil conservation, and biodiversity etc. With the support of data, the ecosystem services valuation could have higher time resolution, reflect more ecosystem processes, and become more intelligent in the future. The results showed that the total value of grassland ecosystem services in Qinghai was between 234.997-337.449 billion yuan during 1998-2012, with the mean value of 293.563 billion yuan and 928.7 thousand yuan per hectare, which is 1.55 times of Qinghai Province’s GDP in 2012. Finally, based on this data, we proposed Qinghai grassland ecosystem adaptive management strategy to provide the basis and decision support for the ecological province strategy of Qinghai.

A Study on Transfer of Ecosystem Service Values in Mining Cities by Meta-analysis

ZHU Xiao-lei, ZHANG Jian-jun, CHENG Ming-fang, XU Qin
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (3): 0434 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160295
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Mining activities seriously interfere with the regional land use, which lead to a strong influence in ecosystem. After collecting many studies related to ecosystem service values (ESVs) in resource-based cities in China, this paper extracts a series of variables with Meta-analysis to establish benefit transfer models for assessing ESVs of cultivated land, forest land, grassland and waters especially in mining cities, then examines the feasibility of these models in Wu’an City to evaluate the ESVs of Wu’an in 1987, 2001 and 2014. The results show that: 1) the benefit transfer method can effectively assess the ESVs in mining cities; 2) there is a declining trend after the increase in the total ESVs of Wu’an, and a significant decrease occurred after 2001; 3) from the aspect of land area, the degree that the mining activities interfere with the land use type is cultivated land>grassland>waters>forest land from 1987 to 2014; from the aspect of the ESVs, the degree that the mining activities interfere with the land use type is cultivated land>waters>grassland>forest land; and 4) when the total area of ecological land reduces, a reasonable optimization of ecological land structure can improve the total ESVs rather.

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