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ISSN 0256-307X(Print)
ISSN 1741-3540 (Online)
CN 11-1959/O4
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  JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES--2017, 32 (5)   Published: 20 May 2017
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Resource Ecology

Construction of Ecological Compensation Standard for Tidal Flat Reclamation —Based on the Spillover Ecological Value Measured by Expansion Emergy Synthesis Model

WANG Xian-jin, ZHONG Chang-biao
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (5): 0742 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160583
Full Text: [PDF 732 KB] (109)
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While tidal flat reclamation brings huge economic benefits to the coastal provinces and cities, it has a significant negative impact on the coastal environment evolvement. The study of the ecological compensation mechanism for tidal flat reclamation has become an urgent strategic task for the protection of the ecological environment of coastal areas in China, and the compensation standard, which is the key to the success of implementing ecological compensation policies and achieving the desired effect, is of great practical significance. The present studies of ecological compensation standard tend to be based on the ecological service value which often leads to inconsistent evaluation standards, double counting and static evaluation result.
Based on the notion of “equivalence between the damage and compensation of ecosystem service” put forward by HAE, we took the spillover ecological value increment as the theoretical criteria of the ecological compensation standard for tidal flat reclamation. An ecological compensation model for tidal flat reclamation was established to quantify the spillover ecological value in different periods on the basis of methods in ecological economics, such as emergy analysis, ecological footprint, Shannon-Wiener index and ecological consumption coefficient. The loss of the spillover ecological value was taken as the criteria to measure the damage brought about by tidal flat reclamation, and consequently to provide the reference for the ecological compensation. An ecological compensation standard was consequently established for tidal flat reclamation based on ecological value coefficient adjustment.
Finally Hangzhou Bay was chosen for a case study. The results showed that the spillover ecological value of Hangzhou Bay in 2000, 2004, 2009, 2015 was 2.40×1019, 1.20×1019, 0.00, -0.21×1019 seJ respectively, the corresponding spillover ecological increments being 0.00, 1.29×1019, 2.18×1019, 2.62×1019 seJ, and the ecological compensation standard for the tidal flat reclamation in Hangzhou Bay rose from 0 in 2000 to 0.15 dollar per square meter in 2015. This study shows that expansion emergy synthesis model can effectively avoid some defects of traditional methods based on ecological service value. It ensures a relatively objective evaluation standard (a unified standard), a dynamic evaluation result, and the respect for the will of both parties involved in the compensation. It can provide some reference for further study of the implementation of ecological compensation, the management and sustainable development concerning tidal flat reclamation.

Effects of Patterns of Returning Straw to Field on Soil Carbon Pool and Yield in Rice-wheat Double Cropping Systems

WANG Hai-hou, JIN Mei-juan, LU Chang-ying, SHI Lin-lin, ZHOU Xin-wei, SHEN Ming-xing, JI Guo-jun
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (5): 0755 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160506
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Straw returning helps to decrease the environment pollution, moreover, the rational utilization of straw resources benefits sustainable development of soil fertility, soil conservation, and the agricultural ecosystem. An eight-year field experiment was conducted in Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province to study the effect of different patterns of straw returning to field on labile organic (LOC), carbon pool management index (CPMI) and crop yields in a typical rice-wheat rotation region—the Taihu Lake region. The experiment consisted of four patterns of returning straw to the field: rice straw alone (named as “R”), wheat straw alone (named as “W”), straw of both rice and wheat (named as “RW”) and no straw returning to field (CK). The results indicated that returning straw significantly increased the content of total organic carbon (TOC), LOC, and non-labile organic (NLOC) at the soil depth of 0-20 cm interval compared to no straw returning treatment. The TOC significantly increased by 15.34%-16.97%, and the LOC content significantly increased by 16.62%-27.39% (P<0.05). No significant difference on TOC or NLOC was observed among different treatments. There were no significant differences of LOC, CPI, CPMI between the treatments of RW and R, while the value of LOC, CPI, CPMI of RW were higher in the treatment of W. The mean rice yield increased by 4.53% in RW and 4.07% in R treatment respectively compared to CK treatment (P<0.05), and no significant difference was observed between W and CK treatments. There were no significant differences of LOC between RW and R treatments (P>0.05), while significant differences were observed between the treatments of RW and W (P<0.05). LOC and CPMI were significantly correlated to the mean yield of rice (P<0.05), while they were not correlated with mean yield of wheat (P>0.05). It was concluded that compared with the mode of returning both rice and wheat straws to field, the mode of only returning rice straw to field in the wheat growing season does not affect the crop yield stability and soil fertility improvement. However, it is recommended to reduce or avoid returning wheat straw in a rice-wheat double cropping system in South China.

Effects of Converting Evergreen Broad-leaved Forests to Chinese Chestnut Forests on Soil Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium Pools and Enzyme Activity

YANG Meng, YUE Tian, LI Yong-fu, LI Yong-chun, HE Jie, XIAO Yong-heng, JIANG Pei-kun, ZHOU Guo-mo
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (5): 0765 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160603
Full Text: [PDF 2993 KB] (107)
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Study on the effects of converting natural forests to plantations on soil nutrient pools has very important significance for sustainable management of forests. In order to investigate the effects of converting evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBLF) to Chinese chestnut forest (MBF) on nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K) pools and enzyme activity in soil, we collected soil samples at the soil surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface layers (20-40 cm) in EBLF and adjacent MBF that was converted from EBLF in Sankou Township, Lin’an City, Zhejiang Province. Different forms of N, P, K and soil invertase, urease, catalase and acid phosphatase activity of the soil sample were determined. The results showed that soil pH, WSON and MBN concentrations decreased significantly and the NH4+-N and NO3--N concentrations increased significantly in both surface and subsurface layers after converting EBLF to MBF. The total N concentrations in the surface layer increased significantly, but those in the subsurface layer had no significant change after the conversion. The Resin-Pi, NaHCO3-Pi, NaOH-Pi, HCl-Pi and Residual-P concentrations in the surface layer increased 61.4%, 53.5%, 19.2%, 55.1% and 25.3% respectively. Resin-Pi, NaHCO3-Pi, HCl-Pi and Residual-P concentrations in the subsurface layer increased 64.6%, 61.2%, 13.7% and 17.3% respectively. The NaHCO3-Po and NaOH-Po concentrations in the soil surface layer decreased 24.8% and 18.3% respectively, while those in the subsurface layer decreased 20.5% and 7.7% respectively after the conversion. The available K, slowly available K, mineral K and total K concentrations in the soil surface layer increased significantly and the available K and slowly available K concentrations in the subsurface layer also increased, but the mineral K and total K concentrations in the subsurface layer had no significant changes after the conversion. Soil invertase, urease, catalase and acid phosphatase activities in the surface layer decreased significantly; urease and acid phosphatase activities in the subsurface layer decreased significantly, but invertase and catalase activities had no significant decrease after the conversion (P < 0.05). To conclude, this forest type conversion has positive effects on soil inorganic N, P and K pools, while has negative effects on soil organic N, P and K pools and enzyme activities.

The Urban Land Ecological Suitability Evaluation of Yanji-Longjing-Tumen Region

ZHAO Xiao-na, GONG Xue, TIAN Feng-hao, LI Ming-yu
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (5): 0778 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160486
Full Text: [PDF 5187 KB] (114)
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Land is the material basis for the survival and development of human beings. However, the rapid urbanization turns a lot of ecological land into construction land every year, resulting in a series of serious ecological environmental problems. Under the background of the ecological civilization construction, the urban development needs to be reasonably planned in order to reduce the influence of urban development on the ecological environment. The premise of reasonable urban planning is to recognize the land ecological suitability and its grade. In view of this, this paper took the Yanji-Longjing-Tumen region in Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture of Jilin Province as the research object and evaluated the urban land ecological suitability in this region. The Yanji-Longjing-Tumen region includes Yanji City, Longjing City and Tumen city, and the whole research scope was 5 088.7 km2. First, this paper built the resistance evaluation system which included twelve factors selected from three aspects of natural geography, socio-economy and ecological constraints. Specifically, they included three factors of natural geography, five factors of social economy and four factors of ecological constraints. Then, by a series of calculations, the comprehensive resistance value and the minimum cumulative resistance value of two types of expansion were calculated and classified. This paper evaluated the land ecological suitability and graded it in Yanji-Longjing-Tumen region by using an approach combining the “Resistance Model” and “Minimum Cumulative Resistance Model” with the spatial analysis technology in GIS. Finally, the results showed that, the urban land ecological suitability of Yanji-Longjing-Tumen region could be divided into the key construction area, the optimized construction area, the restricted construction area and the forbidden zone according to the grade of ecological suitability. Their respective area was 538.55, 743.53, 1 887.46 and 1 919.16 km2, and their respective proportion was 10.58%, 14.61%, 37.09% and 37.71%. Moreover, in the area of 5 088.7 km2 of Yanji-Longjing-Tumen region, the area of land suitable for ecological and suitable for construction respectively accounted for 74.81% and 25.19%. This paper disclosed the space distribution of urban land in each ecological suitability grade, and put forward some suggestions correspondingly in order to provide the theory, technology, decision-making support and reference for the urban land planning in Yanji-Longjing-Tumen region.
Resource Evaluation

Coupling and Coordinating Degrees of Provincial Economy, Resources and Environment in China

JIANG Lei, BAI Ling, WU Yu-ming
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (5): 0788 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160512
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For the purpose of transition of economic development pattern, China’s social-economic sustainable development depends on the harmonious development of economy, resources and environment. Coupling and coordinating degrees are designed to measure the interaction and mutual influence of two or more systems. Coupling degree is highly explainable and operational. Hence, it has been widely used in recent years. However, in many empirical studies, coupling degree formula was usually not used correctly. As a consequence, the range of the coupling degree could not be in the interval [0, 1]. One aim of this paper is to discuss and revise the coupling degree formula. A revised coupling degree formula is obtained and extended to n systems. This paper uses the revised coupling degree formula to calculate the coupling and coordinating degrees of three systems of 31 provinces in mainland China after comprehensive evaluation of provincial economic development, resources endowment and eco-environment. Then, it highlights the spatial analysis of the coupling and coordinating degrees in 31 provinces. The main results are the following. During the period of 2003-2014, generally the coupling degree had an increasing trend. Similarly, the coordinating degree grew up over time. From the spatio-temporal perspective, there was little variation in spatial distribution of coupling degrees of 31 provinces. Moreover, there was significant evidence of spatial autocorrelation of provincial coupling degrees of 31 provinces while provincial coordinating degrees of 31 provinces showed random spatial distribution.

Spatial Analysis and Coordinated Development Decoupling Analysis of Energy-consumption Water in China

HONG Si-yang, WANG Hong-rui, LAI Wen-li, ZHU Zhong-fan
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (5): 0800 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160300
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The relationship between water and energy is complex and close, and their correlation has become a hot issue concerned by international society. In this paper, we try to explore the inherent correlation between energy production and water utilization with spatial autocorrelation analysis and decoupling analysis of energy-consumption water in order to provide a reference for the sustainable development between water and energy. The results show that the water consumption of major energy had different spatial distributions, and the distribution of water consumption had the similar characteristics as that of the energy itself. Regional energy production had strong dependence on local resources. Water consumption of thermal power, hydropower and coal had significant characteristics of spatial clustering. The range of H-H concentrated areas was gradually expanding, and concentration degree was also growing. This indicated that water use efficiency in the production of these three kinds of energies was generally low, and the spatial diffusion trend of this effect exacerbated the tension of water utilization. Water consumption of crude oil and natural gas was in random pattern and had no spatial autocorrelation. Decoupling analysis between energy-consumption water & total water consumption and energy-consumption water & GDP showed that the coordination relationship between energy-consumption water and total water consumption was better than the coordination relationship between energy-consumption water and GDP, but they all showed a deteriorating trend nationally. The growth rate of energy-consumption water was gradually surpassing the rate of economic development and the change rate of total water utilization. It played a warning role water consumption of energy. In the future, inhibiting the growth of water consumption by technical innovation would become an important direction in water consumption of energy production.

Effect of Urbanization on Spatial and Temporal Variation of Extreme Temperature Events in the Yangtze River Delta

JIA Yan-qing, ZHANG Bo, ZHANG Yao-zong, TANG Min, MA Bin, WANG Guo-qiang, LIU Xiu-li, LUO Zheng-ming
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (5): 0814 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160575
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The research analyzes the urbanization effect on spatial and temporal trends of indices of extreme temperature using daily maximum and minimum temperature at meteorological stations in big cities, general cities and villages in the Yangtze River Delta region from 1960 to 2014. The results show that the extreme warm indices increased, while the extreme cold indices decreased. There are slight increasing trends of extreme temperature indices. The warm indices increased more distinctly at urban stations than at rural stations, and the cold indices decreased more apparently at urban stations than at rural stations. The tendencies of other extreme value indices have little difference between urban stations and rural stations except for the minimum value of monthly minimum temperature. Urbanization caused significant decreases of ice days (-0.37 d/10 a), frost days (-1.53 d/10 a) and cold days (-1.05 d/10 a) and significant increases of warm days (1.26 d/10 a), the minimum value of monthly minimum temperature (0.15 ℃/10 a) and the maximum value of monthly minimum temperature (0.06 ℃/10 a) in big cities. The urbanization effect on the trends of ice days (-0.29 d/10 a), frost days (-1.27 d/10 a) and the minimum value of monthly minimum temperature (0.12 ℃/10 a) is significant in general cities. The effect of urbanization on extreme temperature indices is evident in the northern Yangtze River Delta, the southern Jiangsu and southeast Zhejiang. The effect of urbanization on the trend of cold days is more significant in winter, and on the trend of warm days (nights) is more significant in summer. The effect of urbanization on the trends of extreme value indices are significant in spring, summer and winter.

The Risk Assessment of Winter Injury in Main Apple-producing Regions of China

QU Zhen-jiang, ZHOU Guang-sheng
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (5): 0829 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160728
Full Text: [PDF 5109 KB] (75)
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Winter injury is one of the main meteorological disasters that affect apple’s growing distribution and quality. Existing research mainly studies the injuries caused by extremely low temperatures during deep dormancy of apples, mostly using the mean temperature of the coldest month, the frequency of extreme minimum temperatures as indicators to assess the risk and divide the boundaries of apple’s distribution. However, cold resistance of fruit trees is different during different dormant phases, and is closely related with the cold-resistance exercises in fall. The probabilistic forecasting models of early winter injury and extreme winter cold injury are established with the binary Logistic regression, on basis of the data of 2 084 meteorological stations and the winter injuries happened during 1981-2010. The space is divided into five risk’s degrees as very low, low, moderate, high and very high. The classification standard of the probability of winter injury was referred from the classification criteria in the IPCC report. The results show that: the probabilistic forecasting models of early winter injury and extreme winter cold injury passed the Hosmer-Losmer test, and the prediction accuracies of independent samples reached 83.6% and 91.4% respectively. Early winter injury depends mainly on time of the first frost day and the time interval between the first frost day and the first day that the lowest temperature is lower than -15 ℃. The extreme winter cold injury is affected by the average temperature of the coldest month and the cold accumulated temperature when the daily minimum temperature is lower than -20 ℃. The freezing injury caused by short-term extreme low temperature is of small occurrence probability and limited influence scope. The extreme low-temperature injury in winter is mainly caused by continuous intimidation of strong and low temperature. Early winter injury is the main freezing injury in apple-producing regions of China, which happens in most apple-producing regions except the ancient Yellow River region and Yunnan producing region. But extreme winter cold injuries mainly happen in high latitude or high altitude regions, including the northern Bohai Gulf, the northwest of the Loess Plateau and Northern Xinjiang. High risk areas of early winter injury and extreme winter cold injury are almost equal. Gansu is the province that has the largest area of risks with moderate degree and above, followed by Liaoning, Hebei and Shanxi. On the other hand, there are low risks of winter injury, especially for extreme winter cold injury, in Shaanxi and Shandong where there are the largest planting areas of apple.

The Impact of Industrial Relevancy on Regional Carbon Emission: Empirical Analysis Based on the Input-output Data of EU Countries

YUAN Yuan, XI Qiang-min, LI Guo-ping
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (5): 0841 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160549
Full Text: [PDF 1714 KB] (107)
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Carbon emission is the inevitable result of development. With the changes of extensive development to intensive development, is there a peak of carbon emission? And if the peak does exist, when it would appear? The answers of above questions are directly related to the distribution principle and equity of global carbon quotas. The industrial correlation, which is the inherent driving force of the upgrade of economic structure, can demonstrate the stage of regional economic development. This paper utilized theoretical and empirical analysis and concluded that the pattern of carbon emission is an inverted-U shape (Carbon Emission Baseline, CEB). The empirical study of this paper shows: the 1% increase in correlation between high-end manufacturing sector and productive service sector and between high-end manufacturing sector and distributive service sector will cause 3.63% and 5.57% decrease of regional carbon emission, respectively; the 1% increase of correlation between middle-end manufacturing sector and productive service sector and between middle-end manufacturing sector and distributive service sector will result in 7.05% decline and 0.57% growth of regional carbon dioxide emission, respectively; the 1% increase of correlation degree between low-end manufacturing sector and distributive services sector and between low-end manufacturing sector and distributive service sector will bring 4.55% and 10.43% increase in regional carbon emissions, respectively. Therefore, in the initial stage of economic development, the high association between low-end manufacturing and services sectors would have positive effect on carbon emissions; when it came to the period of industrialization, although the dominant industries were slightly different, the overall carbon emissions increased significantly; when economic development entered the mature stage, the high-end manufacturing associations would continue exerting negative effect on carbon emissions, and the regional carbon emissions would demonstrate decline trend. This pattern suggests that if a region is still in the stage of low-end manufacturing and services, this region has rights to keep emission increasing to sustain the basic development. Therefore, CEB not only gives a shape of emission, but also provides a standard relationship between the evolution of emission and economic development. On this level, CEB has potential to be a complement principle of global carbon apportion.

Input-output Analysis of Embodied Carbon Emissions and SO2 Emissions in Regional Trade: A Case Study of Jiangsu

HUANG Rui, WANG Zheng, ZHONG Zhang-qi, SUN Yi, LIU Chang-xin, LU Yu-qi
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (5): 0854 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160498
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We have to take consideration of spatial transfer in responsibility division and pollution control of regional carbon emissions to develop a fair and workable scheme for emission reduction and governance. There are different industrial structures and consumption patterns among different regions in China, and there are frequent regional trade, so the embodied carbon emissions and pollution emissions in trade need to be estimated. Using multi regional input-output model, we calculated carbon emissions and SO2 emissions in Jiangsu Province from the perspective of producers and consumers, respectively. In the view of producer, Jiangsu’s carbon emissions and SO2 emissions are 101.07 Mt C and 1.155 0 million tons, respectively. From the view of consumers, the carbon emissions and SO2 emissions in Jiangsu are 118.94 Mt C and 1.245 5 million tons, respectively. The results showed that Jiangsu is a net carbon emission and net SO2 absorption area, that the net carbon emission is 17.87 Mt C and the net SO2 absorption is 90 500 tons. The embodied carbon emissions and SO2 emissions in each sector are estimated as well. The sources in the top four sectors of embodied carbon emissions and SO2 emissions and the sources of carbon emissions and SO2 emissions in the final demands are analyzed. The embodied carbon emissions and SO2 emissions in metal smelting and rolling processing industry, chemical industry, electric power and heat production and supply industry and construction industry occupy more than half of Jiangsu’s total embodied carbon emissions and SO2 emissions. The embodied carbon emissions and SO2 emissions in metal smelting and rolling processing industry mostly come from Hebei, Shanxi, Henan and Gansu. The embodied carbon emissions of chemical industry are mainly from Liaoning, Xinjiang and Shanxi, the embodied SO2 emissions come from Henan, Shanxi, Liaoning, Xinjiang. In electric power and heat production and supply industry, the embodied carbon emissions of electric power and heat production and supply industry are mainly from Anhui, Shanxi, Liaoning and Henan, and the embodied SO2 emissions mostly come from Henan, Shanxi and Liaoning. In construction industry, the embodied carbon emissions are mainly from Hebei, Henan and Anhui, and the embodied SO2 emissions mostly come from Henan, Shandong and Hebei. Jiangsu faces great pressure of industrial structure adjustment in the future.

Dynamic Assessment and Trend Prediction of Rural Eco-environmental Quality in China

WANG Xiao-jun, WU Jin-xue, JIANG He-ping
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (5): 0864 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160555
Full Text: [PDF 1258 KB] (263)
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Objectively assessing rural eco-environmental quality and predicting its development trend have important theoretical and practical significance for food security, sustainable development of rural economy, and harmonious relationship between economic growth and ecological environment. Based on the framework of PSR model, the paper constructed an evaluating index system to assess the dynamic changes of rural eco-environment during 2000-2015. And the GM grey system theory model was applied to predict the evolution trend of rural eco-environment during the 13rd Five-Year Plan period. The results showed: 1) The quality of rural eco-environment had been falling in the past 15 years. The comprehensive evaluated score of rural eco-environment decreased from 0.669 in 2000 to 0.387 in 2015. The pollutions emission in rural areas was increasing, but the input to environmental protection was low. The continuing growth of Chinese rural economy was at the cost of ecological and environmental deterioration. 2) According to the past growth mode of rural economics, rural eco-environmental quality will continue deteriorating during 2016-2020, far from the expectation of green development during the 13rd Five-Year Plan. We need to change the mode of rural production as soon as possible in order to ease the pressure on rural soil and water imposed by fertilizers and pesticides, and enhance investment in rural environmental protection as much as possible.
Resource Research Method

Effects of Image Texture Window Sizes on LAIe Estimation of Different Communities in Montane Broad-leaved Forest

ZHAO An-jiu
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (5): 0877 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20151266
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Forest canopy leaf area index (LAI), a critical forest structural parameter, has been proven to be representative of canopy foliage content and crown structure and has been widely used for the estimation of radiation attenuation, plant photosynthesis, and precipitation interception among others. It is further a fundamental parameter in land surface processes and earth system climate models. Remote sensing methods offer an opportunity to improve in each of these requirements but are typically limited by the necessity for labor intensive validation and sparsely collected in situ measurements. This research investigates the potential of high resolution optical data from the SPOT 5 VGR sensor for LAIe estimation in five communities of montane broad-leaved forest in southwest Sichuan, using five different types of image processing techniques including 1) spectral reflectance, 2) commonly used vegetation indices, 3) texture parameters, 4) texture parameters of band ratio and 5) texture parameters of principal component(PC). Simple linear and stepwise multiple regression models were developed with LAIe data from 112 field plots and image parameters derived from these techniques. Results indicated that spectral reflectance, texture parameters of spectral bands and commonly used vegetation indices had relatively low potential for LAIe estimation, as only about 65% of the variability in the field data was explained by the model (R2=0.65,RMSE=0.28 m2/m2) when using vegetation indices. However, the simple ratio of texture parameters were found to be more effective for LAIe estimation with explained variability of 74% (R2=0.74,RMSE=0.20 m2/m2). The result was further improved to R2=0.85 (RMSE=0.10 m2/m2) when using the texture parameters of PCs. With regard to five communities, LAIe estimation was found to be more effective than in the whole study area. Castanopsis fargesii community was proven to have the best model (R2 =0.89,RMSE=0.07 m2/m2). Generally, window sizes of 7 × 7 and 9 × 9 were more successful for the whole study area, and window size of 9 × 9 performed well for the five communities. The results suggest that the performance of LAIe estimation can be improved significantly by using the texture parameters of high resolution optical data, and further improvement can be obtained by using the texture parameters of PCs as this method combines the advantages of both the texture and the PCs.
Special Forum

Discussion on the Research Situation of Resources Science Based on Typical Academic Journals

FAN Guang-bing, WANG Shu-qiang, SHEN Lei
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (5): 0889 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160754
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In this paper, based on the citation database of CNKI in recent five years, we use bibliometric methods to statistically analyze literatures in 26 typical domestic journals in the field of resources science. The distributions of top 10 institutions, journals, major funds, and subjects in the field of resources science were obtained, and top 15 high frequency keywords were sorted. The main statistical results are as follows: The top three institutions with resources science research papers cited are Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Shaanxi Normal University and Information Center of Ministry of Land and Resources of People’s Republic of China. The main journals are Journal of Natural Resources, Resources Science and China Population, Resources and Environment. The main funds are the National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Program on Key Basic Research Project (“973” Program) and Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The top three fields are agricultural economy, environmental science and resource utilization and macro economic management and sustainable development. The main research contents are land and resources, geographic information system (GIS) and land use. The results show the current research situation of resources science in China.
Resource Utilization and Management

Measurement and Sensitivity Analysis of Unbalance Degree of Land Development: From the Perspective of Farmland Development Restriction

CAO Rui-fen, ZHANG An-lu
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (5): 0715 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160532
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With the unbalanced development opportunities of farmland as research object, we constructed model to measure unbalanced land development from the perspective of land structure and financial rights and responsibility of land respectively. After giving weights to the two aspects based on their contribution to the unbalance degree of economic development, we calculated the comprehensive unbalance degree of land development with method of weighted summation. Then, by employing provincial panel data in China during 2009-2013, an empirical analysis was made to explore the spatial and temporal differences of the unbalance degree of land development. The results showed that the overall unbalance degree of land development in China was high, which was 1.156, but it decreased year by year, from 1.235 in 2009 to 1.083 in 2013 with average annual decrease rate of 3.07%; at provincial level, the regional difference of the unbalance degree was significant, and the unbalance degree showed growth trend from the eastern coastal developed regions to central regions, and then to southwest, northeast and northwest regions. Among which, Shanghai got the lowest unbalance degree of land development which was only 0.178, while Heilongjiang got the highest unbalance degree of up to 3.148. Besides, we analyzed the sensitivity of unbalance degree to fiscal transfer payment, so as to provide a theoretical basis for reform of fiscal transfer payment. The results show that fiscal transfer payment system helps decrease the unbalance degree of land development, and the sensitivities of unbalanced degree to fiscal transfer payment were different significantly in different areas. The study attempts to quantify the unbalance degree of land development, which may lay a theoretical foundation for relieving the unbalanced land development and balancing the regional development.

Heterogeneous Implementation Effects of the Economic Compensation Policy for Farmland Conservation: Based on Difference-in-difference Dynamic Estimates

ZHU Lan-lan, CAI Yin-ying
JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32 (5): 0727 doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160538
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Chengdu and Suzhou are cities taking the lead in implementing the policy of economic compensation policy for farmland conservation. Taking Chengdu and Suzhou as examples, we use difference-in-difference (DID) estimators to measure the effects and influencing factors of the policy based on a tracking survey conducted in 2012 and 2015. The results are: firstly, the continuous implementation of the policy greatly improved farmers’ satisfaction and encouraged farmers to participate in land transfer, which helped realizing large-scale management of land operation but impeded farmers’ enthusiasm for protecting farmland and engaging in agricultural production. Secondly, there existed significantly regional differences in the implementation effects due to the disparities of economic development level and period of the policy implementation among regions. Specifically, Chengdu started the compensation policy first, and combined it with agricultural subsidies and pension security, so the policy gradually made some achievements. Meanwhile, farmers in Suzhou, one of the most developed areas in China where there are diverse livelihoods and high non-agricultural incomes, were highly encouraged to participate in land transfer instead of farmland protection and farm works. Finally, the effects of the policy implementation were significantly affected by the age, education, cognition of farmland function and conservation, attention to policy of farmland conservation of the farmers, labor forces and annual income from agriculture of the household, and the village’s economic condition and the distance to the nearest town.

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