The coordination of interests among stakeholders in water resources management for trans-boundary rivers remains to be a challenge. Taking the Taipu River, a typical trans-boundary river in the Taihu Lake Basin, as an example, this paper analyzed the interest demands of stakeholders for water resources protection in the upstream and downstream regions of the Taipu River. Based on the game theory, this paper introduced both external driving forces (Watershed Agency Intervention and Incentive and Restraint Policies) and internal equilibrium measures (Ecological Compensation and Sectional Water Quality Assessment) to explore a cooperation mechanism that can mitigate the conflicts and encourage cooperation between the upstream and downstream regions. The results show that: (1) The game cooperative strategy (Reaching Standard, Compensation) is realized in the game model with the coordination methods. (2) Based on the results of game analysis, the realization of the game strategy (Reaching Standard, Compensation) is closely related to the strength of incentives and constraints, the amount of compensation, water rights, upstream protection costs and benefits. (3) The external driving forces can help to coordinate the function orientation difference of upstream and downstream demands of the Taipu River, and to create the enthusiasm and initiative of protection cooperation of the upstream and downstream regions. The internal equilibrium measures can compensate for the loss of upstream water rights and industrial development interests, making the water quality of the Taipu River to meet the safety standard of the downstream water intake. (4) The coordination mechanism of the water resources protection for the Taipu River was constructed, which provides theoretical and decision-making support to accelerate the coordinated development of the Yangtze River Delta and establish a Clean Water Corridor in the Taihu Lake Basin.
This study, based on a strong sustainability paradigm guided by ecological economics and sustainable development theory, aims at measuring the ecological civilization construction performance of China during 2006-2015 by means of two-stage network Super-EBM model from the perspective of overall well-being, and then an international comparison among 42 countries in 2014 is conducted accordingly. The employment of two-stage network DEA model is to open the "black box" during the ecological well-being transformation process. Thus, the ecological civilization construction performance is divided into two parts, namely ecological economy efficiency and economy well-being efficiency. The empirical results indicate that: (1) The overall efficiency of China during 2006-2015 is 0.986, which is at a relatively low level, and no single one of the ten DMUs performs efficiently in terms of the DEA efficiency value, while the overall efficiency is getting better during the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2011-2015). At the global level, Switzerland (1.647), Indonesia (1.365) and Ireland (1.039) ranked top three in terms of overall efficiency among 42 countries in 2014, while China (0.297) ranked the last but one with a very low efficiency. In addition, there are great differences between countries, showing a trend characterized by "OECD countries (0.677) rank top, G20 countries (0.611) rank second and BRICS countries (0.417) the last". (2) According to the efficiency of each stage, the ecological economy efficiency in the first stage is apparently lower than the economy well-being efficiency in the second stage, and the relatively low ecological economy efficiency mainly contributes to the low performance of ecological civilization construction at the whole level. (3) The two-stage network Super-EBM model with the consideration of both radial and slacks issues can provide more accurate and near-factual result when compared to the traditional DEA models. Besides, the network Super-EBM model enjoys a good reference on efficiency or performance assessment in other similar fields that involve two or more stages. Finally, some specific suggestions are proposed in accordance with the aforementioned conclusions.
Taking the first two batches of characteristic towns in the China as an example, comprehensively using the spatial analysis methods, such as the nearest index, geographic concentration index, imbalance index, nuclear density, and geographical contact rate, this paper analyzes the spatial distribution of characteristic towns in the country. On this basis, it puts forward the industrial characteristics and development suggestions. The main conclusions can be drawn as follows: The distribution of characteristic towns in China is characterized by "agglomeration in general, relying on economy, along the line, besieging the city and near scenery". From the perspective of spatial distribution type, the characteristic towns are mainly distributed in the eastern region, and southeast of the demarcation line, which shows a trend of concentration pattern. From the perspective of spatial distribution equilibrium, the characteristic towns show an unbalanced pattern, and the concentration ratio is high. From the perspective of spatial distribution density, they present a pattern of more in the east while fewer in the west, more in the south while fewer in the north, as well as more in the southeast while few in the northwest. Generally speaking, there are five major agglomeration areas: the Bohai Rim, the Yangtze River Delta, the southeast coastal region, the Chengdu and Chongqing in the southwest, and the Central Plains. The spatial distribution of the characteristic towns is the result of the comprehensive role of regional economy, location transportation, core city and tourism resources under the policy guidance. The first two batches of characteristic towns are mainly dominated by agriculture and industry, and the industrial characteristics need further improvement. According to the results, we put forward some suggestions for future development of characteristic towns from rule of law, policy guidance, industry guidance and elements matching.
To determine the effect of management intensity on runoff nutrient losses in bamboo forests under natural rainfall conditions, separate field observation stations were set up at the mouths of each field-sized catchment (micro-watershed) in extensively or intensively managed areas, at Qingshan Bamboo Orchard in Lin'an district, Hangzhou city, Zhejiang province. After every successive rainfall during the year, runoff volumes were measured, and water samples from the sand-settling tanks at the observation stations were collected and analyzed for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), and phosphate (PO43-) contents. Simultaneously, soil samples were also collected and analyzed for pH, organic matter, effective nitrogen and available phosphorus contents. The results showed that: (1) Annual runoffs from intensively managed and extensively managed bamboo forests were 8086.52 m3/hm2 and 4850.95 m3/hm2, respectively; (2) Nitrogen loss in runoff from the bamboo forests was dominated by nitrate nitrogen; (3) Intensive management increased the risk of nutrient losses from the bamboo forests; the annual losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from intensively managed areas were 45.26 kg/hm2 and 25.05 kg/hm2, respectively; but they were only 0.31 kg/hm2 and 0.21 kg/hm2, respectively, from extensively managed area. Compared with losses from extensively managed area, the losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from intensively managed area increased by 80.68% and 47.62%, respectively; (4) The TN content in runoff water had a significant negative correlation with alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen content of the soil, while the TP content in runoff water had a significant positive correlation with soil available phosphorus.
A long time series of the Ayakekumu Lake level change has been compiled by combination of the T/P, RA-2 and Hydroweb data. In addition, we assessed changing index of the Ayakekumu Lake during 1995-2015 based on Landsat images. The results showed that, the Ayakekumu Lake area and level increased continuously during the observation period, the area of lake increased from 624 km2 in 1995 to 995 km2 in 2015, and water level increased by 5 m in total in the period of 1995-2015. Meanwhile, the air temperature had risen, and the area of glaciers retreated from 361.27 km2 in 1994 to 345.26 km2 in 2016. We concluded that the water volume change was related with climate factors, and the main factor was warm-wet climate. Additionally, atmosphere warning led to water level increase due to glaciers melting. The water volume changing in Ayakekumu Lake could be affected by the increasing precipitation as well as dropping evaporation. Some factors are likely to affect lake expansion, including permafrost melting and precipitation at high altitudes. In sum, accurate measurements of lake ice and water levels are critical for understanding the water resource balance and hydrologic cycle in arid or semi-arid regions of China.
Setting up a suitable quantitative analysis model is a basic work for scientific grasp of cultivated land utilization efficiency and its distribution pattern, and can provide reasonable decision-making basis for sustainable utilization of cultivated land then realizing the coordinated development of cultivated resources and environment. In order to effectively describe the complexity, dynamics and heterogeneity characteristics of cultivated land use system, a random forest (RF) model for measuring cultivated land utilization efficiency is constructed by applying random sampling Bootstrap to build a classification tree reasonably. Then by taking 172 cities in the major grain producing areas of China as an example, the RF model was trained to measure the cultivated land utilization efficiency in 2003-2015 compared with Back Propagation Neural Network and Entropy weight to verify the consistency, representative and superiority of RF. The results show that: (1) RF model has fewer parameters and simpler implementation. It can simulate the complex relations among the evaluation indexes, which makes it convenient to analyze the value of each index. (2) For efficiency measurement results of the same space unit, RF > BPNN > EW, the overall distribution pattern of the cultivated land utilization efficiency in RF and BPNN is similar while a great difference exists in EW. (3) Judged from the matching degree of evaluation results to reality and the accuracy parameters, the measurement results are reasonable and in accordance with the facts in RF, which reflected its high applicability and reliability. At the same time, compared with the other two commonly used models, RF can reduce the dimensions of input vectors and the computing complexity, then raise the training efficiency. The correlation coefficient R of RF is 0.8685, MRPD is 2.3533, with the minimum MMSE and MMAE being 0.0174 and 0.0211, respectively, which is more suitable for the study of the cultivated land utilization efficiency with complex nonlinear characteristics, and this method has explored a new way for evaluating cultivated land utilization efficiency.